Definition of Maruf
Maruf is a word which has Arabic origin. It is derived from a-r-f word root. A high number of derivatives are found in the usage area. There are derivatives of this concept that are also used in their original form outside Arab societies. It must have this meaning of the word in itself that it continues to be in circulation in a well-known, loved and adopted form.
The word has found place itself in the most important sources. This situation made it permanent and especially made it an important part of religious literature. Some inflection forms of the word, noun form rather than verb form is also used. It continues to be preferred as a human name in both masculine and feminine terms.
It is possible to express the well-known versions adopted by the communities as follows: Maruf, İrfan, Örf, Arefe, Arafat, Arif, Arife, Muarefe, Tarif, Tarife etc.
Maruf is used in the meanings of famous, generally accepted, good, useful, truthfulness, objectivity, justice, friendship, proximity indicator, sign of friendship, active, known, occasioned, “known as good”, accepted by the society as beautiful.
From this point of view, it has called custom and became the name of traditions that has been going on for generations in terms of customs habits, and common acceptance of the society, which societies consider beautiful and acceptable.
Derivatives of Maruf
İrfan has become one of the most important concepts of this word and has become the name of an information skill that deeply accumulates from the depths of history such as wisdom, aphorism and discernment.
Arefe means “know” by expressing the past tense in its verb form.
Arafat is the name of the place, which is expected to be the highest level of consciousness, and which has been grasped secret of existence and designated as the must be felt closest to the Creator.
Arif means knowledgeable, with in deep knowledge, wise person. Arife is the feminine form of this version.
Muarefe means to meet with each other. Furthermore, this version is used to run custom and customs encounter/comparison meanings.
Tarif means to collect the identification options and leaving out of interest.
Tarife is used instead of pricing as an economic qualification.
Islamic Encyclopedia of Turkish Religious Foundation (TRF), by processing the concept in more than one item, conveyed information about its etymological meaning and its usage in historical adventure:
For example, Ma’ruf was widely used as favor, honoring, heartwarming words and behavior in the pre-Islamic age of ignorance. Thus, in Züheyr b. Ebû Sülmâ’s Muʿallaḳa, the word takes part a few places in the meaning of good word, generosity, beneficence and generally good behavior (see Zevzenî, p. 107, 119, 120).
When İbn Manzur said ‘Ma’ruf is the opposite of münker (which means not acceptable) and what people finds useful, likable, satisfied’, he stated that Ma’ruf was used for good and nice action like custom. Râgıb el-İsfahânî said “Ma‘rûf is a name that expresses the verbs that the mind and shariah describe as good”.
Fahreddin er-Râzî explains the phrase which ma‘rûf is located in “kavlün ma‘rûfün” as ‘the word that conscience accepts without fear and disgust, gives people joy and peace, does not disturb them’. (ibid, VII, 49).
“Ma‘rûf’s use of ”generosity and honouring” meaning in ancient Arabic literature continued in the Islamic period. In the hadith of “Respond to the one who brings you ma‘rûf” (Nesâî, “Edeb”, 108, “Zakât”, 72; Müsned, II, 68) means the ma‘rûf is “honouring”.1
Usage of Ma’ruf in the Quran
The usage of the word Maruf in the Qur’an is extremely effective. The word was used with different forms of inflection. However, its usage in the form of Maruf is very much.
In verse Al-Baqarah 178; Allah allowed the transition from reprisal to pay a price and ordered this to be done as maruf. An order to pay an economic price in the best-known amount and in the most well-known manner is an important reference to Maruf.
In Al-Baqarah 180; also, it is ordered to make a distribution on an economic issue such as heritage, again, and it is desired to prevent victimization.
In Al-Baqarah 228; while talking about the rights of men and women about divorce, it emphasizes that women’s rights are like men and this point is made clear by using the word maruf.
In verse of 229 in the same surah, it is ordered to act on maruf when divorce is inevitable as a social reality. Likewise, in verses 231, 232 and 233, the movement with maruf was constantly ordered to be involved in the economic responsibilities that should be put in place during the divorce processes, and all the special needs were not skipped, are all made referenced to maruf. Similar references were made for all needs that emerged after divorcing, and it was stipulated that both the behaviors should remain within the framework of maruf and also economic attitudes should be done as a maruf way.
Lastly in this surah in 263 verse, the word “maruf” was used for the psychology of ‘infak’ to the right position. The expression as “a maruf word is better than a charity that will be followed by torture” is very important in terms of protecting human dignity and true qualification of human being.
In verses Ali–İmran 104 and 110 were revealed that special organizations should be established for the sovereignty of goodness, and these were defined as “maruf”. Verse 114 also emphasized the reformatory function of this team.
Nisa 5,6 and 8 also give a movement on maruf order for everyone, from the weakest mind and intellectually most naive of the society to those who have to consume partner’s property. Maruf here is understood that it is used in a sense aiming to live humanly without involving into injustice, mistake, extremism.
Al–Hajj 41 is also praised by mentioning that the sensitive people who are placed somewhere on the earth are doing this with maruf by referring that they manage with maximum equity.
In Nur 53, on the other hand, to sincerity and avoiding exaggeration of the duty when fulfill the duty properly in participation in the administration describes with maruf by Allah.
In Luqman 15-17, it is ordered to arrangement behavior with the maruf axis, and even orders the attitude and behavior to be maruf even in the most unrecoverable matters.
In Ahzap 32 is called for consideration with the concept of maruf again, in order not to allow misinterpretations by being skittish and wary even words.
In Muhamad 21, the name of attitudinize in difficult times and standing behind the principles is defined by maruf.
In Mumtahina 12, the framework of political participation and obedience is drawn with the concept of maruf.
In the Qur’an, with the concept of maruf; it is meant a situation that is an order to believers as a duty, recommended, or when doing naturally, with great positive social, economic and psychological effects.
This unique domain and strength of the word Maruf also provides high motivation for us and prepares the ground for it becomes the name of the economic system which we are trying to manifest.